Volumes/articles older than two years are open access except editorials which always are open access.

NOMAD – 26(2), 2021
Volume 26, No 2, June 2021
eNOMAD
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Dorte Moeskær Larsen and Morten Misfeldt
Fostering mathematical reasoning in inquirybased teaching – the role of cognitive conflicts
[Full text. Subscribers only]Tomi Kärki, Jake Mcmullen and Erno Lehtinen
Designing a gamebased environment for enhancing rational number knowledge
[Full text. Subscribers only]Beate Nergård and Kjersti Wæge
Effective mathematical communication in playbased activities: a case study of a Norwegian preschool
[Full text. Subscribers only]Åsa Wedin
Languaging in mathematics classrooms – space for students’ varied language repertoires in the Language introduction program in Sweden
[Full text. Subscribers only]Skapad: 20210602 kl. 10:14

NOMAD – 26(1), 2021
Volume 26, No 1, March 2021
eNOMAD
Access to the two most recent volumes are password protected. Use ”Open access” in the menu for full text of older articles.
Malin Norberg
Exercise design in mathematics textbooks: the case of subtraction
[Full text. Subscribers only]Susanne Johansson, Camilla Björklund och Anne Kultti
Att utmana barns taluppfattning i en matematikaktivitet i förskolan
[Full text. Subscribers only]Ove Gunnar Drageset
Exploring student explanations: What types can be observed, and how do teachers initiate and respond to them?
[Full text. Subscribers only]Anita Valenta, Kirsti Rø, Reidun Persdatter Ødegaard og Marit Buset Langfeldt
Dekomponering av planleggingspraksis i en syklus av utforsking og utprøving i lærerutdanning
[Full text. Subscribers only]Skapad: 20210419 kl. 12:33

NOMAD
Dekomponering av planleggingspraksis i en syklus av utforsking og utprøving i lærerutdanning
Anita Valenta, Kirsti Rø, Reidun Persdatter Ødegaard og Marit Buset Langfeldt
Sammendrag
I lærerutdanningsforskning pekes det stadig oftere på et behov for å organisere arbeid med studenter rundt sentrale undervisningspraksiser, og syklusen av utforsking og utprøving er en av tilnærmingene som er blitt brukt til det formålet. I denne studien ser vi nærmere på planleggingsfasen i syklusen og identifiserer hvordan en lærerutdanner dekomponerer praksisen ”planlegging av matematisk diskusjon mot et gitt faglig mål” mens han leder planleggingen i tre studentgrupper. Ved å identifisere og beskrive lærerutdannerens handlinger åpnes det for videreutvikling av arbeid med praksisen i lærerutdanning. Vi sammenligner våre resultater med tidligere studier som omhandler dekomponering av planlegging for å diskutere lærerstudenters muligheter for utvikling av en planleggingspraksis innen arbeid med syklusen.Abstract
Research on teacher education emphasizes a need to organize work with student teachers around core teaching practices, and the cycle of enactment and investigation is one approach suggested in the literature. We investigate the planning phase of this cycle and identify how a teacher educator decomposes a practice named ”planning of a mathematical discussion towards a given goal” while leading a group of student teachers in planning. By identification and description of the teacher educator’s actions, we seek to contribute to a further development of the given practice within the context of teacher education. We compare our results with earlier studies on decomposition of planning, to discuss student teachers’ opportunities to develop their planning practice while working with the cycle.Anita Valenta
Anita Valenta er Førsteamanuensis på Institutt for lærerutdanning, NTNU Norges teknisknaturvitenskapelige universitet, Trondheim. Forskningsinteresser: resonnering og bevis på barnetrinnet og i lærerutdanning, arbeid med kjernepraksiser i lærerutdanning, kommunikasjon i matematikk, tallforståelse og algebraisk tenking.Kirsti Rø
Kirsti Rø er Førsteamanuensis på Institutt for lærerutdanning, NTNU Norges teknisknaturvitenskapelige universitet, Trondheim. Forskningsinteresser: matematikklæreridentitet, overgangen fra lærerutdanning til læreryrke, holdninger knyttet til matematikklæring og undervisning, resonnering og bevis i aritmetikk.Reidun Persdatter Ødegaard
Reidun Persdatter Ødegaard er Universitetslektor på Institutt for lærerutdanning, NTNU Norges teknisknaturvitenskapelige universitet, Trondheim. Forskningsinteresser: arbeid med kjernepraksiser i lærerutdanning, lærerstudenters profesjonsskriving, matematiske praksiser på barnetrinnet.Marit Buset Langfeldt
Marit Buset Langfeldt er Universitetslektor på Institutt for lærerutdanning, NTNU Norges teknisknaturvitenskapelige universitet, Trondheim. Forskningsinteresser: undervisning og læring av matematikk med digitale verktøy, arbeid med kjernepraksiser i lærerutdanning, matematiske praksiser på barnetrinnet.Skapad: 20210419 kl. 12:32

NOMAD
Exploring student explanations: What types can be observed, and how do teachers initiate and respond to them?
Ove Gunnar Drageset
Abstract
This article presents different types of student explanations that can were observed, and how these were initiated and responded to. The research is based on the practice of five teachers, with all interactions having been analysed and categorized to develop the concepts. First, three distinct types of student explanation were found: explaining actions, explaining reasons, and explaining concepts. Secondly, the teachers’ initiations were inspected, by studying the turn before each student explanation. Strong connections were found between the initiation and each type of student explanation. Thirdly, teachers’ responses to the students’ explanations were inspected, with three main types of response being found to all three types of student explanation: pointing out what to notice, requesting further detail, and confirming and moving on. The main contribution of this article is the conceptualization of students’ explanations and the explanation of how these are initiated and responded to.Ove Gunnar Drageset
Ove Gunnar Drageset is a professor in mathematics education and assistant head of department for teacher education and pedagogy at UIT The Arctic University of Norway. His research interest is focused on classroom communication in general and particularly related to conceptualizing classroom interactions. Other interests include mathematical knowledge for teaching, beliefs related to mathematics teaching and learning, using drama to develop studentcentered classroom communication, and developing research as an integral part of teacher education.Skapad: 20210419 kl. 12:23

NOMAD
Att utmana barns taluppfattning i en matematikaktivitet i förskolan
Susanne Johansson, Camilla Björklund och Anne Kultti
Sammanfattning
Syftet med denna studie är att visa vad som görs möjligt att erfara om tal i en delningsaktivitet med två treåriga barn i förskola. Den specifika frågeställningen är: Vilka aspekter av tal framträder i en delningsaktivitet mellan lärare och treåringar? I en variationsteoretisk analys av observationer där lärare och barn samspelar i delningsaktiviteten visas hur innebörder av tal som är nödvändiga för att utveckla taluppfattning synliggörs i interaktionen. Analysen visar en progression i hur tal som avgränsad mängd, som en samling av objekt, som delhelhetsrelation samt representationer framträder och hur dessa aspekter blir möjliga att urskilja genom den interaktion som uppstår mellan lärare och barn, där gestaltningar som fingermönster och språk utgör resurser för lärandet.Abstract
The aim of this study is to show what is made possible to learn about numbers in a partitioning activity in preschool with two threeyearolds. The specific research question is: What aspects of numbers are discerned in a partitioning activity with teachers and threeyearolds? From a variation theoretical perspective, we analyse observations of teacherchild interaction to find out what becomes critical to experience in developing basic knowledge about numbers. The analysis shows a progression in how numbers, seen as demarcated quantities, as a collection of objects, as partwhole relations and representations appear as necessary to discern and how this is enabled in the teacherchild interaction, where expressions like finger patterns and languages becomes resources for learning.Susanne Johansson
Susanne Johansson är tillsvidareanställd adjunkt vid Göteborgs univer sitet och forskarstuderande i Forskarskolan i kommunikation och relationer som grundläggande för förskolebarns lärande (FoRFa), finansierad av Vetenskapsrådet (nr. 72920136848).Camilla Björklund
Camilla Björklund är professor i pedagogik vid Göteborgs universitet. Hon forskar om barns matematiklärande och undervisning i förskolan och tidiga skolår. Forskningen är praktiknära och bidrar till såväl lärares professionsutveckling som teoriutveckling inom det matematikdidaktiska området.Anne Kultti
Anne Kultti är docent i pedagogik vid Göteborgs universitet. Hennes forskning handlar om jämlika lärandemöjligheter för barn i förskolan. Hon har genomfört empiriska studier rörande kommunikation, deltagande, språklärande, undervisning och samverkan i flerspråkiga förskolesammanhang.Skapad: 20210419 kl. 12:17

NOMAD
Exercise design in mathematics textbooks: the case of subtraction
Malin Norberg
Abstract
Mathematics textbooks are teaching tools used by most students studying mathematics worldwide. In this descriptive textbook analysis, all Swedish mathematics textbooks for year 1, both digital and printed, were mapped out according to the resources used for communication. For delimitation, a focus on subtraction as an arithmetic operation was chosen. The result shows large differences between the 17 textbook series, concerning both the type of subtraction exercises offered and the use of different resources for communication and learning, such as writing, images, and mathematical symbols. Digital textbooks were largely similar to the printed textbooks, except for one tabletbased textbook. Altogether, the study shows that the choice of mathematics textbooks affects how subtraction is presented to students and, by extension, the learning situations students encounter when working with mathematics textbooks.Malin Norberg
Malin Norberg is a senior lecturer in education at Mid Sweden University and earned her PhD in the spring of 2020 with the thesis From design to meaning creation – a multimodal study of students’ work with mathematics textbooks in year 1. Her research interest mainly concerns communication and multimodality in mathematics education. She has previously worked as a teacher educator and primary school teacher.Skapad: 20210419 kl. 12:08

NOMAD – 25(34), 2020
Volume 25, No 34, October 2020
eNOMAD
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Lena Lindenskov and Pia Beck Tonnesen
A logical model for interventions for students in mathematics difficulties – improving professionalism and mathematical confidence
[Full text. Subscribers only]Juuso Henrik Nieminen
Student conceptions of assessment accommodations in university mathematics: an analysis of power
[Full text. Subscribers only]Leif Bjørn Skorpen
What the teachers and the students do and how they interact – a comparison of special education teaching and ordinary teaching in mathematics
[Full text. Subscribers only]Catarina Andersson
Formative assessment – from the view of special education teachers in mathematics
[Full text. Subscribers only]Helena Roos, Maria Lindfors and Anette Bagger
Educational settings in relation to special educational needs in mathematics
[Full text. Subscribers only]Cecilia Segerby
Mind the gap between students and their mathematical textbooks
[Full text. Subscribers only]Skapad: 20201104 kl. 09:43

NOMAD
Mind the gap between students and their mathematical textbooks
Cecilia Segerby
Abstract
Reading and comprehending mathematics textbooks means understanding the global meaning and for this to occur successful comprehension strategies are required. Drawing on the results of a pilot study with six grade 3 students, a relationship between the students’ reading skills and their mathematical skills appeared. To examine this relationship further eighteen students from grades 1, 4 and 7, with different achievement levels were interviewed in this study. Both in the pilot study and in the current study the interview questions were inspired by the comprehension strategies of prediction, clarification, questioning and summarization from Palincsar and Brown’s reciprocal teaching model. These strategies are connected to Halliday’s Systemic functional linguistics to better understand how the textbook context affects students’ use of comprehension strategies. The results show that all students had developed reading comprehension strategies that were more or less successful, starting already from grade 1. Furthermore, the results of this study highlights that all students, independent of their achievement level or grade, require explicit teaching concerning efficient comprehension strategies to grasp the mathematical content being presented in mathematics textbooks.Cecilia Segerby
Cecilia Segerby is senior lecturer at Kristianstad University. Her research interest is in special needs in mathematics with focus on language and preservice special educators’ relational competence.Skapad: 20201104 kl. 09:42

NOMAD
Educational settings in relation to special educational needs in mathematics
Helena Roos, Maria Lindfors and Anette Bagger
Abstract
This paper focuses on students in need of special education in mathematics (SEM students) and highlights teachers’ and principals’ reflections upon these students’ construction of knowledge in relation to two educational settings: the regular teaching setting and the test setting. The findings indicate that SEM students’ knowledge is legitimized only when displayed. However, there appear to be differences according to the specific setting. Different settings imply different knowledge representations, norms, and practices that need to be taken into account when reflecting, planning, and carrying out teaching in mathematics in relation to SEM.Helena Roos
Helena Roos is associate senior lecture mathematics education at Malmö University, Sweden. Her research interests involve special educational needs in mathematics, inclusion, and – more recently, early interventions in mathematics education preventing mathematics difficulties. She particularly interests in students ́ perspective on teaching and learning mathematics, as well as sociopolitical issues of mathematics education.Maria Lindfors
Maria Lindfors is a senior lecturer at the Department of Education at Umeå University, Sweden. Lindfors main research interests are in the field of epistemic cognition and epistemic climate (classroom epistemology), and how these matter in the everyday classroom. More lately, the research focus has been in the field of digitalization in teacher education, with a special interest in professional digital competence.Anette Bagger
Anette Bagger is associate senior lecturer of special education at Örebro University, Sweden. Her research circles around a combination of sociopolitical and didactical dimensions of education. Baggers interests focus on assessment in mathematics education, often in combination with special educational needs. She particularly pays attention to students’ perspectives and teachers work with interventions in order to prevent difficulties and promote inclusion of all learners. Universal design for learning is also a more recent research interest.Skapad: 20201104 kl. 09:37

NOMAD
Formative assessment – from the view of special education teachers in mathematics
Catarina Andersson
Abstract
The potential of using formative assessment is well demonstrated, but studies about the use of formative assessment from a special education perspective are lacking. This study adds to this gap by investigating the view of formative assessment in a group of 39 special education teachers in mathematics (SETMs) who had learned about formative assessment within the SETMprogram 2–6 years earlier. Five respondent interviews were used to design a questionnaire answered by the rest of the group. The SETMs had perceived formative assessment beneficial and useful in all their common subresponsibilities and reported experiences of benefits as well as challenges. The article discusses the importance of reaching an inclusive formative assessment practice in mathematics education.Catarina Andersson
Catarina Andersson is a senior lecturer at the Department of Science and Mathematics Education at Umeå University and a member of Umeå Mathematics Education Research Center (UMERC). Catarina works in teacher education, and has previously worked as a primary teacher and a special education teacher. Her main research interests are mathematics education, formative assessment, special education and teacher training.Skapad: 20201104 kl. 09:30

NOMAD
What the teachers and the students do and how they interact – a comparison of special education teaching and ordinary teaching in mathematics
Leif Bjørn Skorpen
Abstract
In this article, I compare three teaching situations: ordinary mathematics teaching, special education teaching in mathematics located within the ordinary class, and special education teaching in mathematics located outside the ordinary class, in order to find the main differences between them with respect to what the teacher and the students do. The findings are discussed in light of various aspects of the inclusion concept. The empirical material has been collected in the SPEEDproject and consists of observations throughout an entire school day of 108 individual students, their teachers and the classes they belong to. The discussion reveals that the special education teaching is more individual, the student is more frequently engaged in subjectrelated activities and in communication with the teacher, and that each of the two different organizational forms of the special education teaching in mathematics separately seem to fulfil different aspects of the concept of inclusion in a best way.Leif Bjørn Skorpen
Leif Bjørn Skorpen is Associate Professor in mathematics education at Volda University College. His research interests are mainly related to classroom research and mathematics difficulties.Skapad: 20201104 kl. 09:25

NOMAD
Student conceptions of assessment accommodations in university mathematics: an analysis of power
Juuso Henrik Nieminen
Abstract
This study investigates the power relations that underlie assessment accommodations in the context of university mathematics. Assessment accommodations, such as extended testing time, have been claimed to be controversial and even discriminatory. This study approaches these practices through the viewpoint of power and governmentality to understand their sociocultural nature. Nine mathematics students with special needs were interviewed to give them a voice over their own accommodations. The analysis used three contrasting notions of power (sovereign, epistemological, and disciplinary power). The students understood assessment accommodations as unfair practices, which represents unilateral sovereign power. Epistemological and disciplinary power could be identified when the students normalised mathematical assessment, and in the ways the accommodations constructed exclusion. This study highlights the importance of understanding power in the context of assessment accommodations, to shed light on the power structures that might create inequity and injustice in mathematics assessment.Juuso Henrik Nieminen
Juuso Henrik Nieminen is a project researcher at the University of Eastern Finland. His multidisciplinary research concerns the sociocultural aspects of assessment in the contexts of higher education and mathematics education. Also, Nieminen has studied inclusive and accessible assessment practices. His Ph.D. thesis, conducted at the University of Helsinki, concerned student selfassessment from the viewpoints of agency and power.Skapad: 20201104 kl. 09:20

NOMAD
A logical model for interventions for students in mathematics difficulties – improving professionalism and mathematical confidence
Lena Lindenskov and Pia Beck Tonnesen
Abstract
This article describes elements in a Danish model for interventions in mathematics for students in mathematics difficulties. The authors have been core members of the intervention development team for the last decade. The aim of the interventions is to support the students and teachers involved and to be an instrument for municipalities and schools to improve mathematics culture. In the article, we start by sketching a couple of political level incentives and by outlining the pilot study and two largescale experiments in which the model was implemented and expanded. We then present the research question that guides the article. In the main section, we present the logical model, which consists of nine boxes of inputs, processes and outputs. In order to illustrate viewpoints and ideas behind the boxes and their implementation, we have chosen to include some extracts from identification and teaching materials and some data collected through the pilot study and the experiments. We only address the many other existing intervention models to the extent that comparing characteristics helps to clarity characteristics in our own model. We conclude the article by claiming that an open standard to deal with students’ mathematics difficulties, and which is based on high expectations for students, teachers and schools, has been developed.Lena Lindenskov
Lena Lindenskov is associate professor in mathematics education at Aarhus University, DPU – Danish School of Education, teaching at the master study in mathematics education. She has a Ph.D. in mathematics education. The title of her thesis is “Everyday knowledge and mathematics learning in school”. Her research mainly concerns children, adoles cents and adults who are vulnerable in mathematics, within perspectives of justification and meaningfulness.Pia Beck Tonnesen
Pia Beck Tonnesen is associate professor in mathematics education at the University College Copenhagen, Department of Teacher Education. Her field of expertise is early interventions studies for students experiencing mathematics difficulties in primary and lower secondary school.Skapad: 20201104 kl. 09:11

NOMAD
Fostering an intimate interplay between research and practice: Danish ”maths counsellors” for upper secondary school
Uffe Thomas Jankvist and Mogens Niss
Abstract
The gap between research and practice is a wellknown problem (and topic) in educational research, and not least in mathematics education research. This empirically based article discusses the effects of a particular attempt to foster a closer connection between research and practice by involving mathematics education research findings in the activities of selected Danish upper secondary school mathematics teachers, who (have) take(n) part in a researchbased socalled ”maths counsellors” inservice teacher programme. A key aspect of the programme is to make the activation of research findings a mere necessity for significant aspects of the maths counsellors’ practice. To illustrate the teachers’ researchbased work, the article presents six characteristic examples from the implementation of the programme, i.e. authentic examples of how prospective maths counsellors have identified students with mathematics specific learning difficulties, have diagnosed the nature of these difficulties, and how they have designed interventions to help the students overcome them. A discussion of how these activities draw upon and are grounded in mathematics education research findings serve as a basis for evaluating the ”model” behind this further education programme.Uffe Thomas Jankvist
Uffe Thomas Jankvist is professor of mathematics education at Danish School of Education, Aarhus University, Denmark. His research interests involve the use of history of mathematics in mathematics education, digital technologies in the teaching and learning of mathematics, the role of interdisciplinarity when teaching mathematics, students’ mathematics specific learning difficulties, and – more recently – implementation research related to mathematics education. He is currently a member of the board of European Society for Research in Mathematics Education (ERME).Mogens Niss
Mogens Niss is emeritus professor of mathematics and mathematics education at Roskilde University, Denmark. His research interests focus on mathematical competencies, the didactics of mathematical modelling, the nature and history of mathematics education as a research domain, the justification problem in mathematics education, and – more recently – on students’ mathematics specific learning difficulties. He was the secretary general of the International Commission on Mathematical Instruction 1991–1998.Skapad: 20200630 kl. 10:12

NOMAD
Guidelines for utilizing affordances of dynamic geometry environments to support development of reasoning competency
Ingi Heinesen Højsted
Abstract
This article reports on guidelines developed based on an extensive research literature review investigating the potentials of dynamic geometry environments (DGEs) when the educational aim is to support students’ development of mathematical reasoning competency. Four types of potentials were identified – feedback, dragging, measuring, and tracing – and used in three dimensions of guidelines: students’ cognition, task design, and the role of the teacher. Using constructs from the Instrumental approach, the Theory of semiotic mediation, and the van Hiele model of levels, affordances and guidelines are elaborated upon and their potentials for reasoning competency are analyzed.Ingi Heinesen Højsted
Ingi Heinesen Højsted is a PhD student at Danish School of Education, Aarhus University. His main interests include STEM education, mathematical competencies and teacher knowledge, particularly regarding primary and lower secondary school.Skapad: 20200630 kl. 10:07

NOMAD
Conservative and transformative changes in algebra in Swedish lower secondary textbooks 1995–2015
Kristina Palm Kaplan and Johan Prytz
Abstract
The present study examines textbook algebra tasks in an attempt to understand how textbooks change in a reform of lower secondary school algebra. Changes in 1557 textbook tasks for year 8 are described in terms of algebraic activities and school algebra discourses. The tasks were taken from textbooks published before and after a new syllabus was introduced in Sweden in 2011. The results show that the new syllabus’ focus on mathematical competences was not stressed in the textbooks and that the greatest change was an increase in word problems connected to everyday situations. It is suggested that, in this reform, textbooks have been conservative and transformative in relation to the syllabus.Kristina Palm Kaplan
Kristina Palm Kaplan is a PhD student in mathematics education at Uppsala University, Department of Education. In December 2019, she is defending her thesis ”International largescale assessments and mathematics textbooks in a curriculum reform process. Changes in lower secondary school algebra in Sweden 1995–2015”.Johan Prytz
Johan Prytz is associate professor of curriculum studies at Uppsala University, Department of Education. He has a PhD in mathematics with specialization in the didactics and history of mathematics. His research mainly concerns history of mathematics education, curriculum reforms and textbooks.Skapad: 20200630 kl. 10:02

NOMAD
Swedish primary teacher education students’ perspectives on linear equations
Paul Andrews
Abstract
Linear equations, connecting arithmetic to the symbolism of formal mathematics, represent a key topic of mathematics. However, the understanding primary teacher education students bring to their studies has been rarely examined. In this study, students were invited to explain in writing how an unannotated solution to x + 5 = 4x – 1 had been conceptualised by the hidden solver. Data, coded against an iteratively derived framework, showed that most students were familiar with linear equations, able to articulate an objective for equation solving and offer solution strategies, typically based on either doing the same to both sides, swapping the side swapping the sign or both.Paul Andrews
Paul Andrews is a Professor of Mathematics Education at Stockholm University. His research interests are typically focused on comparative analyses of mathematics didactics and participant, both teacher and student, beliefs. Currently he is the director of a Swedish Research Councilfunded project on the development of foundational number sense in year one children in England and Sweden. His methodological and theoretical standpoints are varied and determined by the research questions he is pursuing at the time.Skapad: 20200630 kl. 09:57

NOMAD
Potentialer og begrænsninger ved anvendelse af lærebøger i matematikundervisningen: resultater fra et systematisk review
Natasja Steen, Matilde Stenhøj Madsen and Tomas Højgaard
Sammendrag
Denne artikel sammenfatter et kvalitativt, systematisk review af hvilke potentialer og begrænsninger der kan identificeres ved anvendelse af lærebøger i matematikundervisningen. Første del af artiklen beskriver den metodiske tilgang og afsluttes med et geografisk og tidsmæssigt overblik over forskningsfeltet. I anden del af artiklen præsenteres anvendelsen af begrebskort som et analyseredskab til at afdække sammenhænge i temaerne i den udvalgte litteratur. Resultatet af reviewet præsenteres som et oversigtsskema over de 59 inkluderede kilder. Disse kilder fordeler sig indenfor ti temaer der overordnet kan placeres i fire kategorier: ”lærebogsbegrebet”, ”lærebogen og eleverne”, ”lærebogen og curriculum” samt ”lærebogen og lærerne”. Disse kategorier udtrykker relationer lærebogen indgår i. Tredje del af artiklen beskriver eksempler på fund indenfor de fire kategorier og går tættere på kvalitative analyser i tre af disse temaer herunder et bud på en definition af begrebet ”lærebog”.Abstract
In this article we present a qualitative systematic review guided by the question: Which potentials and limitations of using textbooks in mathematics teaching can we identify?
Firstly, we present the methological approach and provide an overview of the literature with regard to geographic origin and year of publication. Secondly, we describe how we used a concept map as an analytic tool to illustrate connections of the themes in the literature. In this part we also present a descriptive review of 59 included sources, resulting in ten themes sorted in four categories: ”the textbook”, ”the textbook and the students”, ”the textbook and the curriculum” and ”the textbook and the teacher”. These categories express relations that the textbooks are part of. Thirdly, we present some of the findings in the four themes and take a deeper look at the qualitative analysis of three of these themes including a suggested definition of the concept ”textbook”.Natasja Steen
Natasja Steen er matematikvejleder ved Heldagsskolen i Vantinge, FaaborgMidtfyn kommune. Hendes forskningsinteresse er indenfor lærebøger i matematik herunder lærervejledningens mulighed for at udvikle læreres faglighed.Matilde Stenhøj Madsen
Matilde Stenhøj Madsen er adjunkt ved VIA University College, Læreruddannelsen i Aarhus, hvor hun underviser i matematik. Derudover er hun tilknyttet Forskningscenter for pædagogik og dannelse, program for matematik og naturfagsdidaktik. Hendes forskningsinteresse kredser om lærebogen og repræsentationer i matematikundervisningen.Tomas Højgaard
Tomas Højgaard er lektor i matematikkens didaktik ved DPU, Aarhus Universitet. Hans forskningsinteresse er ikke mindst brugen af matematiske kompetencebeskrivelser som værktøj til at udvikle almendannende matematikundervisning i almindelighed, og vilkår for udvikling af elevers matematiske modelleringskompetence i særdeleshed.Skapad: 20200630 kl. 09:41

NOMAD – 25(2), 2020
Volume 25, No 2, March 2020
eNOMAD
Access to the two most recent volumes are password protected. Use ”Open access” in the menu for full text of older articles.
Natasja Steen, Matilde Stenhøj Madsen og Tomas Højgaard
Potentialer og begrænsninger ved anvendelse af lærebøger
i matematikundervisningen: resultater fra et systematisk review
[Full text. Subscribers only]Paul Andrews
Swedish primary teacher education students’ perspectives on linear equations
[Full text. Subscribers only]Kristina Palm Kaplan and Johan Prytz
Conservative and transformative changes in algebra in Swedish lower secondary textbooks 1995–2015
[Full text. Subscribers only]Ingi Heinesen Højsted
Guidelines for utilizing affordances of dynamic geometry environments to support development of reasoning competency
[Full text. Subscribers only]Uffe Thomas Jankvist and Mogens Niss
Fostering an intimate interplay between research and practice: Danish ”maths counsellors” for upper secondary school
[Full text. Subscribers only]Skapad: 20200630 kl. 09:33

NOMAD – 25(1), 2020
Volume 25, No 1, March 2020
eNOMAD
Access to the two most recent volumes are password protected. Use ”Open access” in the menu for full text of older articles.
Camilla Sjölander Nordin
Avtryck i problemlösningsundervisning – en fenomenografisk studie
[Full text. Subscribers only]Raimundo Elicer
Meanings of decisionmaking in probability and statistics: comparing Chilean and Danish upper secondary school curricula
[Full text. Subscribers only]Helge Fredriksen and Said Hadjerrouit
Exploring engineering students’ participation in flipped mathematics classroom: a discursive approach
[Full text. Subscribers only]Anne Birgitte Fyhn og Håkon Robertsen
Kystfiskermatematikk og skolematematikk: to ulike perspektiver på hva ei méd er
[Full text. Subscribers only]Jenny Svanteson Wester and Angelika Kullberg
Understanding the relationship between length and area when changing the size of a twodimensional geometric figure
[Full text. Subscribers only]Skapad: 20200407 kl. 14:10

NOMAD
Understanding the relationship between length and area when changing the size of a twodimensional geometric figure
Jenny Svanteson Wester and Angelika Kullberg
Abstract
When scaling up or down twodimensional geometric figures, students tend to believe that if the lengths are doubled, the area is doubled as well. Although a lot of effort has been made to study and overcome this illusion of linearity, previous research reports that the illusion often remains after teaching. We add to this research by studying students’ experiences of the relationship between change in length and change in area when enlarging or reducing twodimensional geometric figures, identified in a learning study aimed at finding powerful ways of teaching scale to 14yearold students. The aim of this study is to contribute to a deeper understanding of students’ experiences of the relationship and how it can be taught. Teaching the change in length and the change in area simultaneously was found to be one key to students’ learning.Jenny Svanteson Wester
Jenny Svanteson Wester is a PhD student. Her research interest is teaching and learning in classrooms. She works as a mathematics teacher in secondary school.Angelika Kullberg
Angelika Kullberg is an associate professor. Her research is foremost on the relationship between teaching and learning in the mathematics classroom.Skapad: 20200407 kl. 14:08

NOMAD
Kystfiskermatematikk og skolematematikk: to ulike perspektiver på hva ei méd er
Anne Birgitte Fyhn og Håkon Robertsen
Sammendrag
Kystens begrep méd er sentralt for blant annet å finne frem på havet og for å lokalisere fiskeplasser. En tradisjonell euklidsk beskrivelse går ut på at ei méd er ei rett linje gitt ved to punkter. Kystens folk har imidlertid utviklet sitt eget funksjonelle språk knyttet til begrepet méd. Der skolematematikken refererer til begreper fra euklidsk geometri, har kystfiskerne utviklet egne begreper og egen terminologi. Artikkelen bidrar til å synliggjøre matematikk i denne delen av vår immaterielle kulturarv. Vi belyser hvordan forskjeller mellom nordnorske kystfiskeres matematikk og skolematematikk kommer til uttrykk gjennom språk og kulturell praksis. Kystfiskernes kontekstavhengige matematikk bruker få ord, men språket er like presist som skolematematikkens mere omstendelige formuleringer.Abstract
The coastal people’s concept med is central for finding one’s way at sea and for locating places to fish. A traditional Euclidean description is that a med is a straight line given by two points. The coastal people have developed their own functional language related the concept med. Where school mathematics refer to concepts from Euclidean geometry, the coastal people have developed their own concepts and their own terminology. The paper contributes to making visible some mathematics in this part of our intangible cultural heritage. We enlighten how differences between coastal fishermen’s mathematics and school mathematics is expressed by language and cultural practice. The fishermen’s mathematics is intertwined with context and use few words. Their language is as precise as the formulations in school mathematics.Anne Birgitte Fyhn
Anne Birgitte Fyhn is professor in mathematics education at UiT, the Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø. She holds a professor II position at Sámi Allaskuvla/ Sámi University of Applied Sciences. Her main research interests are relations between mathematics education and culture.Håkon Robertsen
Håkon Robertsen started as fisherman in 1960. Since 1986, he has been the skipper of M.S. Eistebåen, from Tromvik, Norway. Eistebåen is a 13 meter (42 feet) fishing boat for net and line fishing (garn og linefiske). It has a crew of two fishermen in addition to the skipper.Skapad: 20200407 kl. 14:03

NOMAD
Exploring engineering students’ participation in flipped mathematics classroom: a discursive approach
Helge Fredriksen and Said Hadjerrouit
Abstract
This paper explores firstyear engineering students’ participation in flipped mathematics classroom. The work uses Sfard’s commognitive framework both as a lens for conceptualizing learning as participation in mathematical discourse and as a methodology for analysing the data generated by the activities that build the mathematical discourse. Data was collected mainly by video recording of classroom activities of firstyear engineering students enrolled in several mathematics courses at a Norwegian university in 2016/2017. The aim of the study is to add to the lack of research on participation in flipped mathematics classrooms at the university level. The paper argues that engagement in the videos outofclass enhances students’ participation in the mathematical discourse. The commognitive analysis comparing outofclass videos and inclass activities show that there are indications of student learning through expansion of the discourse in the videos and enhanced participation in mathematical activities.Helge Fredriksen
Helge Fredriksen received his master in physics from University of Tromsø in 1994. In addition to being a PhD Research Fellow at Agder University, Kristiansand, he holds a position as Assistant Professor at The Arctic University of Norway, campus Bodø. Fredriksen has research interests in active learning strategies in mathematics such as flipped classrooms. Additionally he participates in various R&D activities in information and communication technologies.Said Hadjerrouit
Said Hadjerrouit received the MS and PhD degrees in informatics from the Technical University of Berlin (Germany), in 1985 and 1992, respectively. He joined Agder University, Kristiansand (Norway) in 1991. He is currently Professor of Mathematics Education at the Department of Mathematical Sciences. He has been in the teaching profession for 30 years. His research interests include Web design, didactics of informatics, ICT and learning, eLearning, digital tools in mathematics education, Web 2.0 technologies, and teaching and learning theories in mathematics education.Skapad: 20200407 kl. 13:49

NOMAD
Meanings of decisionmaking in probability and statistics: comparing Chilean and Danish upper secondary school curricula
Raimundo Elicer
Abstract
In this article I investigate the roles given to decisionmaking in probability and statistics upper secondary school curriculum, in a comparative study between Chile and Denmark. Drawing upon Fairclough’s model for Critical discourse analysis, I analyse selected official curricular texts as examples of broader discursive practices. In particular, I focus on the positioning of social actors and legitimation strategies. Present discourses position students as active decision makers, though in the Chilean case this is only evident in more recent texts. The teaching and learning of probability and statistics are legitimised through the appeal to political, professional and educational authorities, and through narratives of necessity for rational, grounded, evidencebased decisions. In this aspect Danish texts are more open to complex social and political decision processes. The analysis illustrates a common search for linking mathematics education to democratic involvement in social and political decisionmaking, but failing to specify the relevance of probability and statistics beyond the individual psychological scope.Raimundo Elicer
Raimundo Elicer is a PhD student in the programme of Didactics of mathematics with connections to history and philosophy of science, in the Department of Science and Environment at Roskilde University, Denmark. His main research interest is the didactics of probability and statistics from a critical mathematics education perspective.Skapad: 20200407 kl. 13:43

NOMAD
Avtryck i problemlösnings undervisning – en fenomenografisk studie
Camilla Sjölander Nordin
Sammendrag
I denna artikel beskrivs hur nio lärare för åk 4–6 och 7–9 erfar sin problemlösningsundervisning och kollegiala lärande två år efter att de deltagit i Matematiklyftet, som var en nationell fortbildningssatsning i Sverige under 2012–2016. Studien tar en fenomenografisk ansats, och visar en variation i hur lärare erfar sin problemlösningsundervisning beroende på om de fortsatt att arbeta i en organiserad form av kollegialt lärande eller inte. Bilden studien ger är att det inte främst är lärarnas ämnesdidaktiska kunskaper, som påverkar hur de erfar problemlösningsundervisningen, utan att det istället är de organisatoriska faktorerna som spelar stor roll.Abstract
For teachers in Sweden an extensive continuing educational training in mathematics didactics has been conducted. 35 000 teachers participated in this Boost for mathematics (Matematiklyftet in Swedish) (Ramböll, 2016). This phenomenological study describes how teachers for grades 4–6 and 7–9 experience their own teaching in problem solving two years after attending a Boost for mathematics. The study is based on interviews with the teachers. The outcome of the study shows the teachers’ thoughts on teaching of problem solving education, the skills of problem solving and collegial learning.
Teachers’ learning is looked upon as a natural and expected part of the teachers (Clarce & Hollingworth, 2002). For teachers’ learning the result shows that those who no longer take part in collegial learning, today create their own forms of organization and that they to some extent take support of the five practices (Stein et al.,2008), but in that case mainly to support the structure of the lesson. Teachers who continue collegial learning also continue teaching based on the Boost for mathematics model, but in some cases there are elements with certain qualitative alterations. In their teaching of problem solving the result shows that these teachers have a critical attitude towards the contents of the education as well as the form of the teaching and the teachers use the five practices in their teaching. All teachers look upon it as a challenge to work with the skills of problem solving and the result shows that teachers to a very small extent allow the students to train their ability to formulate their own problems. Ellström (2005) believes that a continuing education initiative for a year cannot be perceived as a solution. The longterm effects are lacking and practice needs to be constantly maintained and developed.Camilla Sjölander Nordin
Camilla Sjölander Nordin innehar examina som musiklärare, blockflöjtspedagog, ämneslärare i matematik samt speciallärare. Hon är verksam som speciallärare på Riksgymnasiet för döva, hörselskadade och språknedsatta i kombination med att arbeta som universitetsadjunkt på Karlstads Universitet. Hösten 2016 färdigställde hon sin mastersuppsats inom matematikämnets didaktik via Stockholms Universitet.Skapad: 20200407 kl. 13:37

NOMAD
Algebra teachers’ questions and quandaries – Swedish and Finnish algebra teachers discussing practice
Cecilia Kilhamn and AnnSofi RöjLindberg
Abstract
Taking the teachers’ own practices as a point of departure, this study investigates what areas of mathematical knowledge algebra teachers brought up in collegial discussions and how they used their knowledge in acts of decompressing, trimming and bridging. The discussions centered around aspects of teaching and learning school algebra previously shown to be problematic, but gave rise to mathematical quandaries, revealing gaps in the teachers’ own understanding of the mathematical content. The study implies that the ability to unpack a mathematical concept is essential in algebra teaching and that teachers may need external input concerning mathematical knowledge to enable development in pedagogical content knowledge.Cecilia Kilhamn
Cecilia Kilhamn is a doctor in Mathematics Education and works at the University of Gothenburg. She has done research in algebra teaching and learning in the VIDEOMAT project in Gothenburg and as a guest researcher at Uppsala University. Currently she studying the intersection of algebraic thinking and computational thinking brought on by the implementation of programming in school curricula. She works as an editor for the journal Nämnaren at the national center for mathematics education (NCM) in Gothenburg.AnnSofi RöjLindberg
AnnSofi RöjLindberg is a university teacher in the didactics of mathematics at Åbo Akademi University in Vasa, Finland. Before working in teacher education she taught mathematics, physics and chemistry in grades 7 to 9. Her PhD has a focus on school mathematical practices at the lower secondary level from the perspectives of students and teachers. Her resent scientific effort is to contribute to the to development of primary school teacher education and the professional development of teachers.Skapad: 20191127 kl. 16:33

NOMAD – 24(34), 2019
Volume 24, No 34, November 2019
eNOMAD
Access to the two most recent volumes are password protected. Use ”Open access” in the menu for full text of older articles.
Thomas Kaas
Tilgange til tidlig algebra
[Full text. Subscribers only]Peter Hästö and Riikka Palkki
Finnish students’ flexibility and its relation to speed and accuracy in equation solving
[Full text. Subscribers only]AnnaMaija Partanen and Pieti Tolvanen
Developing a frame for analysing different meanings of the concept of variable mediated by tasks in elementaryschool mathematics textbooks
[Full text. Subscribers only]Inger Eriksson, Sanna Wettergren, Jenny Fred, AnnaKarin Nordin, Martin Nyman och Torbjörn Tambour
Materialisering av algebraiska uttryck i helklassdiskussioner med lärandemodeller som medierande redskap i årskurs 1 och 5
[Full text. Subscribers only]Jenny Fred
Att designa för elevers deltagande i ett algebraiskt arbete – elever i årskurs 2 och 3 utforskar visuellt växande mönster
[Full text. Subscribers only]Helena Eriksson
Algebraic thinking and level of generalisation: students’ experiencing of comparisons of quantities
[Full text. Subscribers only]Cecilia Kilhamn and AnnSofi RöjLindberg
Algebra teachers’ questions and quandaries – Swedish and Finnish algebra teachers discussing practice
[Full text. Subscribers only]Skapad: 20191127 kl. 16:33

NOMAD
Algebraic thinking and level of generalisation: students’ experiencing of comparisons of quantities
Helena Eriksson
Abstract
This article explores grade 1 students’ different ways of experiencing quantity comparisons after participating in teaching designed as a learning activity using tasks from the Davydov curriculum. A phenomenographic analysis generated three hierarchical ways of experiencing comparisons: counting numerically, relating quantities, and conserving relationships. The first category comprises arithmetic ways of thinking, whereas the second and third categories comprise algebraic ways of thinking. Algebraic thinking was identified as reflections on relationships between quantities at different levels of generalisation. The implications of these results in relation learning activity theory are discussed.Helena Eriksson
Helena Eriksson is a PhD student at the Department of Mathematics and Science Education, Stockholm university. Her PhDproject concerns learning activity as a framework for designing teaching as well as a framework for research. Helena is engaged in teacher education at Dalarna University and is a teacher for special needs education in the municipality of Borlänge.Skapad: 20191127 kl. 16:27

NOMAD
Att designa för elevers deltagande i ett algebraiskt arbete – elever i årskurs 2 och 3 utforskar visuellt växande mönster
Jenny Fred
Sammandrag
Artikelns syfte är att beskriva och analysera vad i olika lektionssekvenser som skapar förutsättningar för att elever ska engageras i ett algebraiskt arbete och därmed urskiljer kritiska aspekter. Artikeln bygger på data från tre forskningslektioner i vilka lärandeverksamhet (learning activity) tillsammans med Radfords arbete om mönstergeneraliseringar har utgjort teoretiska utgångspunkter. I analysen har didaktiska principer från lärandeverksamhet samt kritiska aspekter gällande att uttrycka och argumentera för mönstergeneraliseringar fungerat som analysredskap. Resultatet kan bidra till att fördjupa förståelsen gällande på vilka sätt principerna från lärandeverksamhet kan stödja ett etablerande och upprätthållande av ett algebraiskt arbete och därmed möjliggöra för elevers urskiljande av kritiska aspekter.Abstract
The aim of the article is to describe and analyze what in different lesson sequences that creates the conditions for students to be involved in algebraic work and thereby distinguish critical aspects. The article is based on data from three research lessons in which Learning activity together with Radford’s work on pattern generalizations were theoretical starting points. In the analysis, didactic principles of Learning activity along with a few identified critical aspects regarding the ability to express and justify algebraic generalizations served as analytical tools. The result can contribute to deepened understanding of the ways the principles can support the establishment and maintenance of algebraic work enabling students to distinguish critical aspects.Jenny Fred
Jenny Fred är fil lic i matematikämnets didaktik och lärare åk F–6. Hennes forskningsintresse handlar främst om den tidiga algebraundervisningen samt hur och vad i undervisningen som skapar förutsättningar för elevers lärande.Skapad: 20191127 kl. 16:21

NOMAD
Materialisering av algebraiska uttryck i helklassdiskussioner med lärandemodeller som medierande redskap i årskurs 1 och 5
Inger Eriksson, Sanna Wettergren, Jenny Fred, AnnaKarin Nordin, Martin Nyman och Torbjörn Tambour
Sammandrag
Syftet med denna artikel är att beskriva och diskutera vilka funktioner lärandemodeller kan ha för att främja yngre elevers kollektiva diskussioner om algebraiska uttryck. Artikeln bygger på data från ett designforskningsprojekt baserat på Davydovs principer för lärandeverksamhet, bestående av videofilmade forskningslektioner i årskurs 1 och 5. Analysen fokuserar på vad som skapar förutsättningar för helklassdiskussioner om algebraiska uttryck, hur de drivs framåt och kvalificeras samt vilka funktioner lärandemodeller kan ha för elevernas utforskande av matematiska strukturer och relationer i algebraiska uttryck. Resultatet indikerar att lärandemodeller som medierande redskap gör det möjligt för eleverna att föra kreativa och reflekterande diskussioner om algebraiska uttryck och deras komponenter.Abstract
The aim for this article, which draws upon on data from a design research project based on Davydov’s principles of learning activity, is to discuss which functions learning models can have to promote students’ collective discussions on algebraic expressions. The data is comprised of videotaped lessons in Grade 1 and 5 respectively. The analysis focuses on conditions for qualifying wholeclass discussions and the functions learning models can have for the students’ collective exploration of mathematical structures and relationships in algebraic expressions. The result indicates that learning models as mediating tools enable the students to conduct creative and reflective discussions on algebraic expressions and their components.Inger Eriksson
Inger Eriksson är professor i pedagogik vid Stockholms universitet. Hennes forskningsintresse är elevers kunskapsutveckling och förutsättningar för lärande, speciellt i matematik och kemi, i ett verksamhetsteoretiskt perspektiv.Sanna Wettergren
Sanna Wettergren är fil lic i didaktik. Hennes forskningsintresse är kvalificering av matematikundervisning i grundskolan, speciellt algebra och resonemang, samt olika aspekter av formativ bedömning.Jenny Fred
Jenny Fred är fil lic i matematikämnets didaktik. Hennes forskningsintresse handlar främst om den tidiga algebraundervisningen samt hur och vad i undervisningen som skapar förutsättningar för elevers lärande.AnnaKarin Nordin
AnnaKarin Nordin är fil lic i matematikämnets didaktik och arbetar vid Stockholms universitet. Hennes forskningsintresse är skapandet av matematiska argument och resonemang i helklassdiskussioner.Martin Nyman
Martin Nyman är doktorand i matematikämnets didaktik. Hans forskningsintresse rör modeller för utformandet av en undervisning där elever ges möjligheter att engagera sig i ett aktivt undersökande av matematikens abstrakta dimensioner.Torbjörn Tambour
Torbjörn Tambour är docent i matematik vid Stockholms universitet. Hans forskningsintresse är algebra och lärande av algebra.Skapad: 20191127 kl. 16:14

NOMAD
Developing a frame for analysing different meanings of the concept of variable mediated by tasks in elementaryschool mathematics textbooks
AnnaMaija Partanen and Pieti Tolvanen
Abstract
Pupils’ studies in arithmetic can support the development of their algebraic thinking if arithmetic is taken as a starting point for generalising in sensemaking discussions. One of the most prominent concepts in algebra is that of the variable, which can have many different meanings, depending on its context. In this paper, we develop a frame for content analysis of tasks in elementaryschool mathematics textbooks. New categories for the meaning of variable are added to previous summaries, based on the literature review and the analysis. The developed frame can be used for analysing curricular materials, especially at the elementaryschool level.AnnaMaija Partanen
AnnaMaija Partanen is a senior university lecturer in mathematics education at the University of Lapland in Finland. She is also the director of LUMA centre Lapland. Her research interests are the discussion culture of mathematics classroom and earlyalgebraic approaches to teaching in elementery school.Pieti Tolvanen
Pieti Tolvanen is a lecturer in didactics of mathematics, physics and chemistry for preservice class teachers and a PhD candidate in Faculty of Education at University of Lapland in Finland. His research interest is the development of elementary pupils’ algebraic thinking.Skapad: 20191127 kl. 16:04

NOMAD
Finnish students’ flexibility and its relation to speed and accuracy in equation solving
Peter Hästö and Riikka Palkki
Abstract
A total of 266 Finnish students participated in a flexible equation solving test. By flexibility we understand the knowledge of multiple strategies and ability to choose the most mathematically appropriate strategy for a given task. Here we focus on the first aspect, namely knowledge of appropriate alternative, socalled innovative strategies. The test measured students’ capacity and inclination for producing innovative strategies. We consider the relationship between these measures and students’ speed and accuracy in solving equations. We find that students with high capacity for innovation have high speed and accuracy. On the other hand, some low capacity students had high speed or accuracy whereas others had low. Inclination for innovation is not related to speed or accuracy.Peter Hästö
Peter Hästö is professor of mathematics at University of Turku and University of Oulu, with responsibility for mathematics teacher education.Riikka Palkki
Riikka Palkki is PhD student at University of Oulu, Finland. She has taught mathematics, physics and chemistry in secondary school. She has been working on a mathematics teaching development project since 2014. She is especially interested in flexibility and intentional errors in teaching mathematics.Skapad: 20191127 kl. 15:58

NOMAD
Tilgange til tidlig algebra
Thomas Kaas
Sammendrag
Undervisning af 6–12 årige i algebra og algebraisk tænkning har under betegnelsen ”tidlig algebra” gradvist etableret sig som forskningsområde og undervisningspraksis i et stigende antal lande. På basis af et hermeneutisk inspireret litteraturstudie karakteriserer denne artikel de indholdsmæssige tilgange til undervisning i tidlig algebra, som forskningslitteratur i perioden 1995–2017 giver. Analysen har resulteret i et rammeværk for tilgange til tidlig algebraundervisning, som præsenteres og diskuteres. Artiklen konkluderer bl.a., at undervisning i tidlig algebra typisk tager afsæt i elevers arbejde med tal, kvantiteter og/eller funktionelle sammenhænge, og at elevers algebraiske tænkning søges udviklet gennem aktiviteter, der enten har opdagelser af generelle egenskaber og egenskaber eller ræsonnementer vedrørende ukendte talstørrelser som fokus. Forskelle mellem de forskellige tilgange vedrører desuden den rolle, som repræsentationer og kontekster har i undervisningen.Abstract
Teaching of 6–12 year old students in algebra and algebraic thinking has gradually become established as a research area and teaching practice in an increasing number of countries, under the term early algebra. This article presents a hermeneutically inspired review that was conducted to characterize and discus content approaches to early algebra teaching provided by the research literature in the period 1995–2017. The analysis of the included literature has resulted in a framework for approaches to early algebra teaching, which is presented and discussed.
The article concludes that early algebra teaching typically takes its starting point in students’ work on numbers, quantities and / or functional contexts, and that students’ algebraic thinking is taught through activities that have either identification of general relations and properties or reasoning with unknown quantities as focus. Differences between the different approaches relate also to the role of representations and contexts in the teaching.Thomas Kaas
Thomas Kaas er ph.d.studerende ved Aarhus Universitet og Københavns Professionshøjskole. Han har tidligere arbejdet som folkeskolelærer, læreruddanner og lærebogsforfatter. Hans primære forskningsinteresser er algebraisk tænkning og evaluering i matematikundervisning.Skapad: 20191127 kl. 15:49

NOMAD
University students’ general and specific beliefs about infinity, division by zero and denseness of the number line
Kristina Juter
Abstract
A study of university students’ beliefs about infinity and related concepts, e.g. division by zero and denseness of the number line, was conducted. The concepts were chosen for the students’ proven cognitive challenge in coping with them, and part of the study was to analyze individual beliefs of the different concepts in relation to each other. A questionnaire was designed to discover relationships between pre service teachers’ and technology students’ beliefs. Particular foci in the study were general and specific perspectives of the concepts and admission requirements for the programs. The results show incoherence with respect to general and specific representations of aspects concerning denseness of the number line, and also show that admission requirements are significant when it comes to validity of beliefs about division by zero.Kristina Juter
Kristina Juter is Professor of Mathematics education at Kristianstad Uni versity in Sweden. Her current research interests are students’ understandings of concepts related to calculus, preservice mathematics teacher development and upper secondary school physics teachers’ use of mathematics in physics teaching.Skapad: 20190620 kl. 08:52

NOMAD – 24(2), 2019
Volume 24, No 2, June 2019
eNOMAD
Access to the two most recent volumes are password protected. Use ”Open access” in the menu for full text of older articles.
Trond Stølen Gustavsen and Olav Gravir Imenes
Investigating the fit of a model for students’ understanding of fractions in a Norwegian contextAbdel Seidouvy, Ola Helenius and Maike Schindler
Authority in students’ peer collaboration in statistics: an empirical study based on inferentialismSvanhild Breive
Engaging children in mathematical discourse: a kindergarten teacher’s multimodal participationKristina Juter
University students’ general and specific beliefs about infinity, division by zero and denseness of the number lineSkapad: 20190619 kl. 16:09

NOMAD
University students’ general and specific beliefs about infinity, division by zero and denseness of the number line
Kristina Juter
Abstract
A study of university students’ beliefs about infinity and related concepts, e.g. division by zero and denseness of the number line, was conducted. The concepts were chosen for the students’ proven cognitive challenge in coping with them, and part of the study was to analyze individual beliefs of the different concepts in relation to each other. A questionnaire was designed to discover relationships between pre service teachers’ and technology students’ beliefs. Particular foci in the study were general and specific perspectives of the concepts and admission requirements for the programs. The results show incoherence with respect to general and specific representations of aspects concerning denseness of the number line, and also show that admission requirements are significant when it comes to validity of beliefs about division by zero.Kristina Juter
Kristina Juter is Professor of Mathematics education at Kristianstad Uni versity in Sweden. Her current research interests are students’ understandings of concepts related to calculus, preservice mathematics teacher development and upper secondary school physics teachers’ use of mathematics in physics teaching.Skapad: 20190619 kl. 16:08

NOMAD
Engaging children in mathematical discourse: a kindergarten teacher’s multimodal participation
Svanhild Breive
Abstract
This article reports from a case study which investigates a kindergarten teacher’s multimodal participation in a teachinglearning activity involving addition and counting. By multimodal participation the kindergarten teacher engages nine children (age 4.9–5.9) in mathematical discourse and supports their opportunities for learning. Implications for practice are that kindergarten teachers (and school teachers) can benefit from being consciously aware of the affects their bodily actions have on children’s mathematical reasoning and how they can engage children in mathematical discourse without having to ”teach” (i.e., tell) children mathematical concepts and relations. The article also considers how kindergarten teachers can prepare for a smooth transition to school by introducing children to mathematics through semistructured activities.Svanhild Breive
Svanhild Breive defended her PhD thesis at University of Agder in June 2019. She has then been employed as Assistant Professor in Mathematics Education at University of SouthEastern Norway. Her key research interests are mathematics teaching and learning in kindergarten.Skapad: 20190619 kl. 16:04

NOMAD
Authority in students’ peer collaboration in statistics: an empirical study based on inferentialism
Abdel Seidouvy, Ola Helenius and Maike Schindler
Abstract
Students’ peer collaboration efforts in mathematics and statistics is a topic that has increasingly gained attention in research. In any collaboration, authority relations play a role for how meaning is constituted: Whenever things are discussed and decisions are made, authority is involved in a sense that some arguments or persons may be more convincing and powerful than others. In this article, we investigate how authority changes dynamically in type and in distribution as groups of fifth grade students collaborate in data generation processes. We identify and categorize authority using an epistemological framework, which is based on the philosophical theory of inferentialism. The results show that the three different types of authority described in inferentialism are all identifiable in students’ collaborative work. We also find and categorize further types of authority connected to the statistics group work, some of which are hardly addressed in previous research.Abdel Seidouvy
Abdel Seidouvy is PhD student at Örebro University, Sweden. His main research interest concerns statistics education, student collaboration, and inferentialism in statistics education.Ola Helenius
Ola Helenius is a researcher and a designer of teaching sequences and professional development programs at the National Centre for Mathematics Education at University of Gothenburg. His main research interests concerns the epistemology, psychology and neuropsychology of elementary mathematics, and professional development of mathematics teachers and preschool teachers.Maike Schindler
Maike Schindler has a PhD in mathematics education from TU Dortmund University, Germany. After her postdoc at Örebro University, Sweden, she became professor at the University of Cologne, Germany. Her main research interests relate to theories in mathematics education, learning difficulties and special education in mathematics, creativity and giftedness in mathematics, inclusive teaching and learning, and – methodically – the use of eye tracking in mathematics education.Skapad: 20190619 kl. 15:59

NOMAD
Investigating the fit of a model for students’ understanding of fractions in a Norwegian context
Trond Stølen Gustavsen and Olav Gravir Imenes
Abstract
To capture the complexity of students’ understanding of fractions, a model linking partwhole to the subconstructs ratio, operator, quotient and measure has been proposed. We ask if this model is compatible with students’ achievements in a Norwegian context. Responses from 638 students were analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM), and a good fit of the model was obtained after removing the ratio subconstruct. In particular, partwhole is seen to be important for operator, quotient and measure. Using qualitative analysis of interviews, we found reasoning associated with ratio, with a weak link to the partwhole subconstruct.Trond Stølen Gustavsen
Trond Stølen Gustavsen is Professor of mathematics at the University of SouthEastern Norway and Professor of mathematics/mathematics education at the University of Bergen. He holds a Dr. Scient. degree from the University of Oslo and has done research in pure mathematics. Gustavsen is editor and coauthor of textbooks for mathematics teacher education and his research interests include the teaching and learning of fractions and argumentation and proof.Olav Gravir Imenes
Olav Gravir Imenes is Associate Professor of mathematics/mathematics education at Oslo Metropolitan University. He has a Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of Oslo in the subject of noncommutative algebraic geometry and has published research in mathematics education and contributed to textbooks for teacher education in mathematics. His research interests include noncommutative algebraic geometry and the teaching and learning of fractions.Skapad: 20190619 kl. 15:47

NOMAD – 24(1), 2019
Volume 24, No 1, March 2019
eNOMAD
Links display the full text pdf.
Annika Pettersson, Yvonne Liljekvist and Jorryt van Bommel
Studying concept elements as a way to trace students’ conceptual understandingKajsa Bråting, Lars Madej and Kirsti Hemmi
Development of algebraic thinking: opportunities offered by the Swedish curriculum and elementary mathematics textbooksJohan Sidenvall
Literature review of mathematics teaching design for problem solving and reasoningJanne Fauskanger
Ambisiøse undervisningspraksiser i Teacher time outSkapad: 20190215 kl. 14:20

NOMAD
Ambisiøse undervisningspraksiser i Teacher time out
Janne Fauskanger
Sammanfattning
Denne studien undersøker ambisiøse undervisningspraksiser lærere får muligheter til å øve på å utføre gjennom rutinen Teacher time out (TTO) i et etterutdanningsforløp. Datamaterialet analysert er fra prosjektet Mestre ambisiøs matematikkundervisning, hvor lærere arbeider med bestemte matematiske aktiviteter i sykluser av utforsking og utprøving. Analysene av 139 TTO viser at deltakerne får øve på følgende undervisningspraksiser: 1) å få frem elevers matematiske ideer, 2) å orientere elevene mot hverandres ideer, 3) å respondere på elevenes matematiske ideer, 4) å vurdere elevenes matematiske forståelse, samt til utvikling av mer generell undervisningskompetanse. Implikasjoner for fremtidig etterutdanning og for fremtidig forskning diskuteres.Abstract
This study investigates ambitious teaching practices teachers have an opportunity to practice through the routine Teacher time out (TTO). The data material analyzed is taken from the project Mastering ambitious mathematics teaching, wherein teachers in their professional development work on given teaching activities in cycles of enactment and investigation. 139 TTOs have been analyzed. The analyses indicate that the teachers in TTOs have an opportunity to practice the following teaching practices: 1) eliciting students’ mathematical ideas, 2) orienting students towards each other’s ideas, 3) responding to students’ mathematical ideas, 4) evaluating students’ mathematical understanding, and in addition developing their general teaching competence. Implications for future professional development and research are discussed.Janne Fauskanger
Janne Fauskanger er førsteamanuensis i matematikkdidaktikk ved Universitetet i Stavanger. Hennes forskningsinteresser knyttes hovedsakelig til matematikklæreres kunnskap og praksis, samt til utvikling av læreres kunnskap og praksis.Skapad: 20190215 kl. 14:09

NOMAD
Literature review of mathematics teaching design for problem solving and reasoning
Johan Sidenvall
Abstract
To characterize teaching designs intended to enhance students’ problem solving and reasoning skills or to develop other mathematical competencies via problem solving and reasoning, a literature review was conducted of 26 articles published in seven topranked journals on mathematics education from 2000 to 2016. Teaching designs were characterized by a) the educational goals of the designs, b) the claims about how to reach these goals, and c) the empirical and theoretical arguments underlying these claims. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the retrieved articles. All but two studies had goals concerned with developing students’ mathematical competencies. The overarching ideas of the identified emergent claims regarding the achievement of stipulated goals, concerned scaffolding students’ learning and letting students construct their own mathematics. Four recurring theoretical arguments were found to support emergent claims: hypothetical learning trajectories, realistic mathematics education, theory of didactical situations and zone of proximal development.Johan Sidenvall
Johan Sidenvall, postgraduate student at the Department of Science and Mathematics Education, and Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC), Umeå University, Sweden. His research interest is how and under what conditions mathematical teaching, aimed at supporting students’ own construction of solutions via reasoning, may lead to more effective learning.Skapad: 20190215 kl. 14:03

NOMAD
Development of algebraic thinking: opportunities offered by the Swedish curriculum and elementary mathematics textbooks
Kajsa Bråting, Lars Madej and Kirsti Hemmi
Abstract
In search of the reasons for Swedish students’ low achievement in algebra in international and national evaluations, we investigate how the development of algebraic thinking is addressed in the Swedish national mathematics curriculum and two widely used mathematics textbook series for grades 1–6 in Sweden. The analytical tool used is based on the classification of ”big ideas” which research has shown as important for developing pupils’ algebraic understanding in early school grades. The results show that functional thinking, expressions, and equations are well represented topics both in the curriculum and the textbooks; however generalized arithmetic is a topic that is poorly developed in both the curriculum and the textbooks.Kajsa Bråting
Kajsa Bråting is Associate professor in mathematics education at the Department of education, Uppsala university. Currently she leads the VRfunded research project Integrating programming in school mathematics – exploring the intersection of algebraic and computational thinking and participates in a research project aiming at characterizing the algebraic content in the Swedish mathematics curriculum and textbooks for grades 1–9. She writes textbooks in mathematics for upper secondary school level and for teacher education.Lars Madej
Lars Madej is a doctoral student and university teacher in mathematics education at the Department of education, Uppsala university. He is also fil. lic. in mathematics. Currently he participates in the research project Towards researchbased teaching of algebra – diachronic and synchronic analyses of steering documents, curriculum materials and teachers, funded by the Swedish research council. He writes textbooks in mathematics for intermediate school.Kirsti Hemmi
Kirsti Hemmi is Professor in mathematics and science education at Åbo akademi university in Finland and Guest professor at Uppsala university in Sweden. She has led research projects comprising cultural aspects of mathematics education, curricula, textbooks and teachers’ interaction with materials. She is currently leading a fouryear research project at Uppsala university focusing on the progression of algebra in the Swedish mathematics curriculum.Skapad: 20190215 kl. 13:59

NOMAD
Studying concept elements as a way to trace students’ conceptual understanding
Annika Pettersson, Yvonne Liljekvist and Jorryt van Bommel
Abstract
The understanding of mathematical concepts has been described in terms of concept definition and concept image. We suggest an elaboration of these constructs, the concept element, to find a way to theoretically describe students’ understanding. The concept element construct was tested in a setting with students working with linear functions at the secondary school level. Our empirical findings reveal traces of students’ concept elements regarding linear functions. Some concept elements appeared early in the process while others appeared after a cognitive conflict (e.g. evoked by the task construction and setting). The detailed grid on which concept elements are defined was a useful tool, yielding new insights into students’ knowledge and understanding.Annika Pettersson
Annika Pettersson is licentiate in Mathematics and lecturer at Kristine hamns kommun, Sweden. She works in upper secondary school for adults (Komvux). Her research interests are students’ learning, teaching development and the possibilities for teachers to research base their teaching.Yvonne Liljekvist
Yvonne Liljekvist is senior lecturer in Mathematics Education at the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science at Karlstad University, Sweden. One of her research interests is mathematics teachers’ professional development. One of her research interests is mathematics teachers’ professional development, focusing on the relations between the subject and processes of teaching – studying – learning.Jorryt van Bommel
Jorryt van Bommel is senior lecturer in Mathematics Education at the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science at Karlstad University, Sweden. Her research focusses on teachers’ professional development as well as the teaching and learning of mathematics in preschool class, primary and secondary school.Skapad: 20190215 kl. 13:53

NOMAD – 23(34), 2018
Volume 23, No 34, November 2018
eNOMAD
Tamsin Meaney and Toril Eskeland Rangnes
Language diversity in mathematics education in the Nordic countries 2008–2018Eva Norén and Petra Svensson Källberg
Fabrication of newlyarrived students as mathematical learnersPetra Svensson Källberg
Identity formations as mathematical learners in the context of transitionMarie Sjöblom
Developing mathematical reasoning by using questions in a multilingual mathematics classroomMaria Ahlholm and Päivi PortaankorvaKoivisto
The language factor – what exactly is it? Bilingual speakers of Russian and Finnish solving mathematical tasksJöran Petersson
Newly and earlyimmigrated secondlanguage students’ knowledge of arithmetic syntaxHilja L. Huru, AnnaKaisa Räisänen and Anita Movik Simensen
Culturally based mathematics tasks: a framework for designing tasks from traditional Kven artefacts and knowledgeMette Hjelmborg and Ane Fleischer
En registeranalyse af centrale matematiske begreber i en grønlandsk kontekstAnne Birgitte Fyhn, Ellen J. Sara Eira, Ole Einar Hætta, Inga Anne Marit Juuso, Siv Ingrid Nordkild og Ellen Margrethe Skum
Bishop Sámegillii – utfordringer ved oversetting av matematikkdidaktisk fagterminologiDorota Lembrér
Polish parents’ views on mathematics activities at home and in Swedish preschoolsTroels Lange and Tamsin Meaney
Talking about mathematics in two languages: Can parental views inform the development of digital games for young children?Andrea Eikset and Tamsin Meaney
When does a difference make a difference? Teaching about language diversity in mathematics teacher educationSusanne Prediger
Multilingual issues in Nordic mathematics education – What is achieved and where to go next?Skapad: 20181106 kl. 11:33

NOMAD
Multilingual issues in Nordic mathematics education – What is achieved and where to go next?
Susanne Prediger
Abstract
This Nomad special issue provides eleven highly interesting insights into current research and development projects in mathematics education on multilingual and multicultural issues. It shows the diversity of approaches currently adopted in the Nordic Countries with an impressing richness of perspectives and ideas. I am grateful to have had the opportunity to read and discuss the papers carefully as I learned a lot. In this commentary, I compare and connect the papers with each other and the international state of research and to suggest some directions for further research and development. The commentary is structured in the following steps: Di erent implicit and explicit conceptualization of languages are identi ed in the articles ( rst section); di erent research approaches are summarized with a need to strengthen Design research (second section); and di erent instructional approaches for activating multiple language resources for mathematics learning and further enhancing both languages (third section).Susanne Prediger
Susanne Prediger is full professor for mathematics education research at TU Dortmund University in Germany and currently the vicedirector of the German Center for Mathematics Teacher Education. She leads a big research group on language diversity in mathematics education and is interested in fostering language learners’ mathematics learning.Skapad: 20181106 kl. 11:22

NOMAD
When does a difference make a difference? Teaching about language diversity in mathematics teacher education
Andrea Eikset and Tamsin Meaney
Abstract
There has been little attention in mathematics education research about how to include issues to do with language diversity in teacher education. This paper describes the process used by two teacher educators to examine their own practices of linking multilingual perspectives to mathematics education in their work with preservice teachers. By systematically analysing their discussion about a threehour, mathematicsteachereducation workshop on proportional thinking, the teacher educators were able to identify a series of Discourses. They considered that these Discourses underlay their decision making about how language diversity could be raised with preservice teachers. The results highlight the complexity connected to raising language diversity issues in mathematics teacher education. For example, deciding what challenging content should be provided to preservice teachers is a ected by the need to develop relationships with them as well as managing their learning. Joint re ection by the teacher educators was needed to ensure that the aim of challenging preservice teachers about how to deal with language diversity issues in mathematics classrooms could be achieved.Andrea Eikset
Andrea Eikset is an assistant professor working at Western Norway University of Applied Sciences in Bergen. Her academic background is in mathematics didactics, and her main research interests are mathematics in early childhood education, diversity and sustainable development. This is also connected to teacher educators own professional development.Tamsin Meaney
Tamsin Meaney is professor in mathematics education at Western Norway University of Applied Sciences in Bergen, Norway. She has written journal articles on language diversity in mathematics education for twenty years.Skapad: 20181106 kl. 11:20

NOMAD
Talking about mathematics in two languages: Can parental views inform the development of digital games for young children?
Troels Lange and Tamsin Meaney
Abstract
In this article, the results are presented from a survey of parents’ views about the digital games that their young multilingual children play. Previous research has indicated that parents struggled to describe how their children were learning from playing digital games. The results from this study indicate that parents could provide information about the digital games and the mathematical language they invoked. This information could be useful in developing playful, digital games that support multilingual children to talk about mathematics. The survey also provides insights into the followup qualitative research studies that are needed to support the development of new digital games.Troels Lange
Troels Lange is professor in mathematics education at Western Norway University of Applied Sciences in Bergen, Norway. He has a long standing interest in children ́s perceptions of mathematics education and societal issues that in uence the views of parents, teachers and politicians about mathematics education for young children.Tamsin Meaney
Tamsin Meaney is professor in mathematics education at Western Norway University of Applied Sciences in Bergen, Norway. She has written journal articles on language diversity in mathematics education for twenty years.Skapad: 20181106 kl. 11:18

NOMAD
Polish parents’ views on mathematics activities at home and in Swedish preschools
Dorota Lembrér
Abstract
This article describes the results of a digital survey of 41 Polish immigrant parents’ views on mathematics activities at home and at preschool as parents’ views potentially provide a range of perspectives on mathematics activities for young children. Parents were asked to describe and justify their views about how children engage with mathematical ideas and nominate activities that children engage in at home and at preschool. When parents justi ed their views about young children and mathematics, they tended to align themselves with the norms and values of the Swedish preschool curriculum. The ndings suggest that parents, like children, are socialised into Swedish preschools. However, this alignment could limit possibilities for broadening perspectives about mathematics education in preschool, which could be available by incorporating input from immigrant parents’ di erent cultural and linguistic backgrounds.Dorota Lembrér
Dorota Lembrér is a doctoral student at Western Norway University of Applied Sciences in Bergen, Norway. She has a background as a preschool teacher and a lecturer at Malmö University in Sweden. Her main research interests are early childhood mathematics education and aspects of mathematics activities in preschool and home environments.Skapad: 20181106 kl. 11:16

NOMAD
Bishop Sámegillii – utfordringer ved oversetting av matematikkdidaktisk fagterminologi
Anne Birgitte Fyhn, Ellen J. Sara Eira, Ole Einar Hætta, Inga Anne Marit Juuso, Siv Ingrid Nordkild og Ellen Margrethe Skum
Sammenfatning
I artikkelen belyser vi kulturelle og språklige utfordringer som kan oppstå når teoretiske begreper fra matematikkdidaktisk forskning oversettes til et språk og en kultur som er ernt fra språket og kulturen der begrepene ble utviklet. I samarbeid med forskere oversatte lærere ved Guovdageainnu nuoraidskuvla/Kautokeino ungdomsskole et matematikkdidaktisk rammeverk fra engelsk til nordsamisk. Vi fokuserer på oversetting av aktiviteten locating som inngår i rammeverket. Locating omfatter grunnlaget for elevers utvikling av romlig forståelse. Vi bidrar også til diskusjonen om hvorvidt hovedområdene i matematikklæreplanen skal utformes som verb eller substantiver.Abstract
In this article we enlighten cultural and linguistic challenges that may occur when concepts from mathematics education are translated into a language and a culture that is far from the language and the culture where the concepts were developed. In cooperation with researchers, teachers at Guovdageainnu nuoraidskuvla/Kautokeino lower secondary school translated a mathematics education framework into North Sámi. We focus on translations of the activity locating, which is part of this framework. Locating constitutes the basis for students’ development of spatial understanding. We also contribute to the discussion about whether the national mathematics curriculum’s content areas should be verbs or nouns.Anne Birgitte Fyhn
Anne Birgitte Fyhn is professor in mathematics education at UiT, the Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø. She holds a professor II position at Sámi Allaskuvla/ Sámi University of Applied Sciences. Her main research interests are relations between mathematics education and culture.Ellen J. Sara Eira
Ellen J. Sara Eira is principal of Guovdageainnu nuoraidskuvla. She has taught mathematics in Sámi for 35 years and she taught Sámi at Sámi Allaskuvla/Sámi University of Applied Sciences for two years. Since 2010, she is mathematics sensor for the national compulsory school exam. From 1983–1998 she was member of the national exam group in Sámi at upper and lower secondary level.Ole Einar Hætta
Ole Einar Hætta is mathematics teacher at Guovdageainnu nuoraidskuvla. He has been sensor at the Sámi mathematics exam for the compulsory school for ten years. He was member of the 2017 national curriculum group that worked out core elements in mathematics. He is master student in mathematics education at UiT, the Arctic University of Norway.Inga Anne Marit Juuso
Inga Anne Marit Juuso is mathematics teacher at Guovdageainnu nuoraidskuvla. She also teaches duodji (Sámi handicraft). She is master student in mathematics education at UiT, the Arctic University of Norway.Siv Ingrid Nordkild
Siv Ingrid Nordkild is Ph.D. student at UiTThe Arctic University of Norway, Campus Tromsø. Her Ph.D. is based in mathematics education in the North Sámi area in Norway. Her research interests are culture based mathematics education and indigenous related issues in education. She is educated as an electrical engineer with Master’s degree in pedagogy.Ellen Margrethe Skum
Ellen Margrethe Skum is vice principal of Guovdageainnu nuoraidskuvla. She teaches Sámi language and duodji (Sámi handicraft). She uses her competencies in Sámi tradition and culture, among others from reindeer husbandry, in her teaching.Skapad: 20181106 kl. 11:12