Standardized mathematics testing in Sweden: the legacy of Frits Wigforss
JEREMY KILPATRICK & BENGT JOHANSSON
Developed more than 50 years ago, the Swedish system of standardized testing as a means of moderating marks (or grades) is about to be replaced by a criterion-referenced measurement scheme. The principal developer of the original system, Frits Wigforss, was a psychologist and mathematics educator who understood the complex issues raised by any marking system and who attempted to use testing not to replace but to improve teachers' judgment A close examination of the history of standardized mathematics testing in Sweden reveals the magnitude of Wigforss's contribution as well as its subsequent eclipse by the elevation of measurement technique over mathematical substance and a serious absence of attention to the educational and social consequences of changes in the system.
Jeremy Kilpatrick är professor i matematikämnets didaktik vid University of Georgia, Athens, USA.
Bengt Johansson är universitetslektor i matematikämnets didaktik vid Göteborgs universitet, Sverige.